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Temperature Range Temperature Rating-IHI PCB connectors

 

Q: What is the Temperature Range or temperature rating of IHI Tin plated aluminum PCB connector lugs?

A: There are two areas to discuss, the connector itself and the entire device in which the connectors is used.   

 

1. UL and CSA under UL486A-B and C22.2 No.65 standards define the MAXIMUM OPERATING temperature of the connector using the 75C and 90C temperature rating codes 7 and 9. (see Agency labels below for examples of 75C and 90c connectors).   

 

2. Derating of maximum current using the largest rated wire is done using NEC derating tables (below) which takes operating temperatures higher than 30C and lowers the current, to allow for less I^2R watts of heat generation to offset the higher ambient temperature.  At some high ambient temperature, the useful current rating of the wire and connectors, and certainly even more so the PCB copper foil traces, is too limited unless forced cooling is used.

 

All of the test data for UL and CSA tested connectors is with “free air” flow, not forced air. User of fans, liquid cooling and large heat sinks change the temperature equations dramatically which is why the engineering of the whole device is in the hands of the OEM designer not the maker of the connectors.

 

3. Testing of connectors by UL and CSA and other accredited test labs includes a 500 cycle, over current, accelerated aging stress test on these connectors. There is a disqualification of the test if the temperature rises over 125C above ambient test temperature. 


125C is not a recommended maximum operating temperature but a guide for perspective. Generally, a connector that rises in temperature by 125C in free air would often fail the 500 cycles test, somewhere between 100C-125C rise over ambient.


4. Low temperature ambient temperatures. Historically the testing standard is based on maximum temperatures since current creates heat and heat is the ultimate barrier to larger current flow.  There is no lower temperature suggested in the UL486A-B connector standard except that connectors can be uprated for cooler ambient temperatures in place of down rated (see NEC tables).

 

Recently UL and CSA have added low temperature testing for connectors with polymeric insulation since some plastics do suffer from cracking at low temperatures and often the plastic needs to be crimped or bent or otherwise strained in installation.
For polymeric components of a connector the test temperature picked by UL /CSA is -10C.


Again, this is not a lower limit on operating temperature but more a point on the scale below which an installation technician would be concerned about cracking plastic components of metal and plastic connector such as crimp lugs.
IHI PCB connectors are uninsulated and so do not contain polymeric materials in their structure.

 

5. Only the OEM designer can both design and test the final assembly for a known ambient temperature performance.
Outside specialist labs that perform this kind of whole product testing are able to provide pass fail to industry recognized tests.  

 

6. As an example, from an OEM customer’s published literature with several IHI PCB connectors on a complete “tropicalized” power controller product that still performs after 20 years of sales in the global markets:

 

Environmental:
Ambient:  -40C to +60C
Storage:    -40C to +80C
Humidity:  100% (No condensation)
High Temp shutdown:
70C disconnect line power source
80C disconnect load (battery power)
60C reconnect load (battery power)
50C Reconnect Line power source  
   
This product was subjected to significant Third Party stress and environmental testing to support the offered temperature specs and has significant internal temperature monitoring protections to avoid self-destruction.
Notably above you see the 70C maximum temperature line power shutdown and 80C battery power shutdown.  
Rather closely aligned to the 75C max nominal rating of the PCB connector.

IHI can make no projections of the connectors temperatures in use which is solely the role of the OEM to determine.

 

75C Rating

75C Rating

 

90C Rating

90C Rating

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Ampacities of Insulated Conductors From NEC Table 310.16 (2020 edition)

Not More than Three Conductors in Raceway, Cable or Earth (Directly Buried)
(Based on Ambient Temperature of 30° C, 86° F)

The previous table version can be seen here.

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Size Copper Conductors Aluminum Conductors
Copper-Clad Conductors
  60° C
(140° F)
75° C
(167° F)
90° C
(194° F)
    60° C
(140° F)
75° C
(167° F)
90° C
(194° F)
 
AWG
Kcmil
Types Types Types Types Types Types
TW RHW TBS, SA, SIS, TW RHW TBS
UF THHW FEP, FEPB, MI, UF THHW SA, SIS
THW PFA, RHH, THW THHN, THHW
THWN RHW-2, THHN, THWN THW-2
XHHW THHW, THW-2, XHHW THHW-2, RHH,
XHWN THWN-2, XHWN RHW-2, USE-2,
USE USE-2, XHH, USE XHH, XHHW,
ZW XHHW, XHHW-2, XHHW-2, XHWN
XHWN, XHWN-2, XHH, XHHW
XHHN, Z, ZW-2 XHWN-2, XHHN
 
18 *
-
-
14
-
-
-
16 *
-
-
18
-
-
-
14 *
15
20
25
-
-
-
12 *
20
25
30
15
20
25
10 *
30
35
40
25
30
35
8
40
50
55
35
40
45
6
55
65
75
40
50
55
4
70
85
95
55
65
75
3
85
100
115
65
75
85
2
95
115
130
75
90
100
1
110
130
145
85
100
115
1/0
125
150
170
100
120
135
2/0
145
175
195
115
135
150
3/0
165
200
225
130
155
175
4/0
195
230
260
150
180
205
250
215
255
290
170
205
230
300
240
285
320
195
230
260
350
260
310
350
210
250
280
400
280
335
380
225
270
305
500
320
380
430
260
310
350
600
350
420
475
285
340
385
700
385
460
520
315
375
425
750
400
475
535
320
385
435
800
410
490
555
330
395
445
900
435
520
585
355
425
480
1000
455
545
615
375
445
500
1250
495
590
665
405
485
545
1500
525
625
705
435
520
585
1750
545
650
735
455
545
615
2000
555
665
750
470
560
630

Notes:

1. Section 310.15(B) shall be refrenced for ampacity correction factors where the ambient temperature is other than 30 C (86 F).

2. Section 310.15(C)(1) shall be refrenced for more than three current-carrying conductors.

3. Section 310.16 shall be refrenced for conditions of use.

*Section 240.4(D) shall be refrenced for conductor overcurrent protection limitations, except as modified elsewhere in the Code.

 

Correction Factors for Ambient Temperature From NEC Table 310.15(B)(1)

Over 30° C, 86° F

For Ambient Temperatures Over 30° C, 86° F, multiply the ampacities shown above by the appropriate factor show below:
Ambient Temperature Copper Conductors Aluminum Conductors
Copper-Clad Conductors

21-25 C,

79-77 F

  1.08 1.05 1.04     1.08 1.05 1.04  

26-30 C,

78-86 F

1 1 1 1 1 1

31-35 C,

87-95 F

0.91 0.94 0.96 0.91 0.94 0.96

36-40 C,

96-104 F

0.82 0.88 0.91 0.82 0.88 0.91

41-45 C,

105-113 F

0.71 0.82 0.87 0.71 0.82 0.87

46-50 C,

114-122 F

0.58 0.75 0.82 0.58 0.75 0.82

51-55 C,

123-131 F

0.41 0.67 0.76 0.41 0.67 0.76

56-60 C,

132-140 F

- 0.58 0.71 - 0.58 0.71

61-65 C,

141-149 F

- 0.47 0.65 - 0.47 0.65

66-70 C,

150-158 F

- 0.33 0.58 - 0.33 0.58

71-75 C,

159-167 F

- - 0.50 - - 0.50
76-80 C, 168-176 F - - 0.41 - - 0.41

81-85 C,

177-185 F

- - 0.29 - - 0.29

UL White Book Notes on Ampacity Level Rating for ZMVV UL486A-B connectors 

 

Ampacity level rating:

 

A. Equipment use — Equipment wiring requirements may restrict the sizing, ampacity and temperature ratings of connected conductors. Equipment requirements may limit 90°C or higher-rated conductors to 60 or 75°C ampacity in accordance with Electrical Equipment for Use in Ordinary Locations (AALZ).

 

B. General use — Connectors rated 75°C are intended for use at ampacities not greater than those for 75°C-rated conductors, and connectors rated 90°C are for use at ampacities not greater than those for 90°Crated conductors. Connectors may be marked with ‘‘75C’’ or ‘‘90C’’ to represent these levels. Alternatively, these rating levels may be represented by a 7 or 9 associated with the marking ‘‘CU,’’ ‘‘AL’’ or ‘‘ALCU,’’ e.g., ‘‘AL9,’’ ‘‘AL9CU,’’ ‘‘AL7CU,’’ ‘‘CU7,’’ ‘‘CU9.’’ Connectors not marked with an ampacity number 7 or 9 have an assumed level per the following table. Use of higher-temperature-rated conductors is not prohibited, provided the ampacity levels continue to be based on the 75 or 90°C ratings.

 

white book on ampacity level rating

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